Raízes filosóficas da Prevenção Quaternária

Daniel Widmer

Resumo


Este artigo explora duas dimensões filosóficas da prevenção quaternária, uma vez que esta representa a resposta dos médicos de família para a sobremedicalização. A primeira dimensão se refere à teoria do conhecimento e a segunda à teoria da ação. Apesar de suas interconexões, elas são abordadas separadamente. Em primeiro lugar, com relação à teoria do conhecimento (Epistemologia) argumenta-se que o positivismo da Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE), tão útil para selecionar boas práticas, deve ser equilibrado com uma visão crítica do uso da EBM, juntamente com uma visão construtivista através da medicina baseada em narrativas. Em segundo lugar, com relação à teoria da ação (Ética) argumenta-se que o princípio da não-maleficência (primum non nocere) precisa ser equilibrado pelo princípio da beneficência. Este último constitui-se obrigação médica primária e os médicos deveriam cultivar essa sabedoria prática. Finalmente, alguns aspectos dos futuros desafios da P4 são discutidos, tais como as desigualdades na saúde, a colaboração interprofissional, responsabilidade, gerencialismo, e a medicina integrativa, onde suas posições filosóficas deveriam ser consideradas.

Palavras-chave


Prevenção Quaternária; Filosofia; Ética; Medicina Baseada em Evidências; Epistemologia

Texto completo:

PDF/A (English)

Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5712/rbmfc10(35)1128

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Direitos autorais 2015 Daniel Widmer

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