O paradoxo da popularidade no rastreamento mamográfico e a prevenção quaternária

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5712/rbmfc18(45)3487

Palavras-chave:

Prevenção Quaternária, Atenção Primária à Saúde, Prevenção de Doenças, Câncer de mama, Programas de rastreamento.

Resumo

Introdução: Apesar dos sobrediagnósticos (diagnósticos de doenças que não se manifestariam clinicamente) no rastreamento mamográfico terem tornado duvidoso o balanço benefícios-danos, persistem suas recomendações positivas às mulheres (>50 anos) e aos profissionais, o que demanda prevenção quaternária — evitação de danos iatrogênicos e sobremedicalização. Nessa persistência, estão envolvidos expectativas fictícias, cultura moralista preventivista, medicina de vigilância e biocapitalismo (interesses econômicos). Argumentamos que o “paradoxo da popularidade” — expansão paradoxal da popularidade dos rastreamentos alimentada pela produção de seus danos iatrogênicos — tem mais importância nesse contexto do que se tem considerado. Objetivo: Descrever e discutir alguns modos de operação possíveis desse paradoxo nos profissionais de saúde. Métodos: Ensaio baseado em literatura selecionada intencionalmente. Resultados: Para além da síntese desse paradoxo nas populações, sua operacionalidade em profissionais de saúde envolve fatores cognitivos (invisibilidade dos casos sobrediagnosticados, diluição dos casos graves entre os sobrediagnosticados e feedbacks cognitivos apenas positivos na experiência clínica), políticos (interesses corporativos e comerciais poderosos) e psicológicos (significativa recompensa subjetiva de tratar mais pessoas com ótimo resultado e menor desgaste emocional derivado do cuidado aos casos sobrediagnosticados, além de outros comuns vieses psicocognitivos). Conclusões: Os processos discutidos podem ser relevantes para a prevenção quaternária e um melhor manejo clínico e institucional desse rastreamento, que deve envolver os profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde e vários outros atores sociais.

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Biografia do Autor

Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). Florianópolis, SC

Médico pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas- UNICAMP (1991), com residência em Medicina Preventiva e Social pela UNICAMP (1993), especialização em Homeopatia pela Associação Paulista de Homeopatia (1997), mestrado em Saúde Coletiva pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (1999) e doutorado em Saúde Coletiva pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (2004). Trabalhou 9 anos como médico generalista e sanitarista na atenção básica no interior paulista (zona rural) e 3 anos como generalista da Saúde da Família em Campinas/SP. Atualmente é professor adjunto da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (desde 2006). Tem experiência na área de medicina, atenção primária e organização de serviços de atenção primária à saúde, especialmente na Estratégia Saúde da Família, com ênfase em gestão do trabalho de equipes de Saúde da Família, prática médica na atenção primária e medicinas alternativas e complementares nesse contexto. Tem trabalho de pesquisa e ensino na áreas de modelos assistenciais, organização de serviços e acolhimento na atenção primária, práticas e medicinas alternativas e complementares na atenção primária, prática médica e educação médica na atenção primária. Atualmente é bolsista de produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq, docente da Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade da UFSC e preceptor do Internato Médico em Interação Comunitária da UFSC (estágios na atenção primária à saúde). Mais informações: Currículo Lattes

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2023-10-24

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1.
Tesser CD. O paradoxo da popularidade no rastreamento mamográfico e a prevenção quaternária . Rev Bras Med Fam Comunidade [Internet]. 24º de outubro de 2023 [citado 13º de junho de 2024];18(45):3487. Disponível em: https://rbmfc.org.br/rbmfc/article/view/3487

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